Topic 102 - Statement of Cash Flows

This topic includes FAQs relating to the following IFRS standards, IFRIC Interpretations and SIC Interpretations:

IAS 7 Statement of Cash Flows

 

Other resources

  • IFRS At a Glance by standard is available here
  • IFRS in Practice: IAS 7 Statement of Cash Flows is available here

 

Sub-topic within this main topic are set out below, with links to IFRS Interpretation Committee agenda decisions and BDO IFRS FAQs relating to that sub-topic below each sub-topic:

Sub-topic Number Sub-topic and Related FAQ
102.1 Scope and definitions
102.2 Cash and cash equivalents
  • 102.2.1.1
  • 102.2.1.2
  • 102.2.1.3
  • 102.2.1.4
102.3 Presentation of a statement of cash flows
  • 102.3.1.1
  • 102.3.1.2
  • 102.3.1.3
102.4 Operating activities
102.5 Investing activities
102.6 Financing activities
102.7 Reporting cash flows on a net basis
102.8 Foreign currency cash flows
102.9 Interest, dividends and taxes on income
102.10 Investments in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures and changes in ownership interests
102.11 Non-cash transactions
102.12 Changes in liabilities arising from financing activities
  • 102.12.1.1
102.13 Other issues

 

FAQ#

Title

Text of FAQ

102.2.1.1

IFRIC Agenda Decision - Determination of cash equivalents

July 2009 - The IFRIC received a request for guidance on whether investments in shares or units of money market funds that are redeemable at any time can be classified as cash equivalents.

The IFRIC noted that paragraph 7 of IAS 7 states that the purpose of holding cash equivalents is to meet short-term cash commitments. In this context, the critical criteria in the definition of cash equivalents set out in paragraph 6 of IAS 7 are the requirements that cash equivalents be ‘convertible to known amounts of cash’ and ‘subject to insignificant risk of changes in value’. The IFRIC noted that the first criterion means that the amount of cash that will be received must be known at the time of the initial investment, ie the units cannot be considered cash equivalents simply because they can be converted to cash at any time at the then market price in an active market. The IFRIC also noted that an entity would have to satisfy itself that any investment was subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value for it to be classified as a cash equivalent.

Given the guidance in IAS 7, the IFRIC did not expect significant diversity in practice because the purpose of holding the instrument and the satisfaction of the criteria should both be clear from its terms and conditions. Accordingly, the IFRIC decided not to add this issue to its agenda.

Back to sub-topic index

102.2.1.2

IFRIC Agenda Decision - Identification of cash equivalents

May 2013 - The Interpretations Committee received a request about the basis of classification of financial assets as cash equivalents in accordance with IAS 7. More specifically, the submitter thinks that the classification of investments as cash equivalents on the basis of the remaining period to maturity as at the balance sheet date would lead to a more consistent classification rather than the current focus on the investment’s maturity from its acquisition date.

The Interpretations Committee noted that, on the basis of paragraph 7 of IAS 7, financial assets held as cash equivalents are held for the purpose of meeting short-term cash commitments rather than for investment or other purposes. This paragraph further states that an investment is classified as a cash equivalent, only when it has a short maturity from the date of acquisition.

The Interpretations Committee observed that paragraph 7 of IAS 7 promotes consistency between entities in the classification of cash equivalents and did not think that the requirements of paragraph 7 of IAS 7 were unclear.

On the basis of the above, the Interpretations Committee determined that in the light of the existing IFRS guidance, an interpretation or an amendment to Standards was not necessary and it did not expect significant diversity in practice to develop regarding their application. Consequently, the Interpretations Committee decided not to add this issue to its agenda.

Back to sub-topic index

102.2.1.3

IFRIC Agenda Decision - Classification of short-term loans and credit facilities

June 2018 - The Committee received a request asking about the types of borrowings an entity includes in its statement of cash flows as a component of cash and cash equivalents. In the fact pattern described in the request:

a.

an entity has short-term loans and credit facilities (short-term arrangements) that have a short contractual notice period (eg 14 days);

b.

the entity says it uses the short-term arrangements for cash management; and

c.

the balance of the short-term arrangements does not often fluctuate from being negative to positive.

The Committee observed that:

a.

applying paragraph 8 of IAS 7, an entity generally considers bank borrowings to be financing activities. An entity, however, includes a bank borrowing as a component of cash and cash equivalents only in the particular circumstances described in paragraph 8 of IAS 7—ie the banking arrangement is a bank overdraft that (i) is repayable on demand, and (ii) forms an integral part of the entity’s cash management.

b.

cash management includes managing cash and cash equivalents for the purpose of meeting short-term cash commitments rather than for investment or other purposes (paragraphs 7 and 9 of IAS 7). Assessing whether a banking arrangement is an integral part of an entity’s cash management is a matter of facts and circumstances.

c.

if the balance of a banking arrangement does not often fluctuate from being negative to positive, then this indicates that the arrangement does not form an integral part of the entity’s cash management and, instead, represents a form of financing.

In the fact pattern described in the request, the Committee concluded that the entity does not include the short-term arrangements as components of cash and cash equivalents. This is because these short-term arrangements are not repayable on demand. Additionally, the fact that the balance does not often fluctuate from being negative to positive indicates that the short-term arrangements are a form of financing rather than an integral part of the entity’s cash management.

The Committee also noted that paragraphs 45 and 46 of IAS 7 require an entity to (a) disclose the components of cash and cash equivalents and present a reconciliation of the amounts in its statement of cash flows with the equivalent items reported in its statement of financial position; and (b) disclose the policy which it adopts in determining the composition of cash and cash equivalents.

The Committee concluded that the principles and requirements in IFRS Standards provide an adequate basis for an entity to assess whether to include in its statement of cash flows the short-term arrangements described in the request as components of cash and cash equivalents. Consequently, the Committee decided not to add this matter to its standard-setting agenda.

Back to sub-topic index

102.2.1.4

IFRIC Agenda Decision – Demand deposits with restrictions on use arising from a contract with a third party

April 2022 - The Committee received a request about whether an entity includes a demand deposit as a component of cash and cash equivalents in its statements of cash flows and financial position when the demand deposit is subject to contractual restrictions on use agreed with a third party. In the fact pattern described in the request, the entity:

  1. holds a demand deposit whose terms and conditions do not prevent the entity from accessing the amounts held in it (that is, were the entity to request any amount from the deposit, it would receive that amount on demand).
  2. has a contractual obligation with a third party to keep a specified amount of cash in that separate demand deposit and to use the cash only for specified purposes. If the entity were to use the amounts held in the demand deposit for purposes other than those agreed with the third party, the entity would be in breach of its contractual obligation.

Cash and cash equivalents in the statement of cash flows

The Committee noted that the question in the request is about whether the demand deposit meets the definition of ‘cash’ in IAS 7.

Paragraph 6 of IAS 7 defines ‘cash’ by stating that it ‘comprises cash on hand and demand deposits.’ IAS 7 includes no requirements on whether an item qualifies as cash beyond the definition itself.

IAS 7 and IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements indicate that amounts included in cash and cash equivalents may be subject to restrictions, namely:

  1. paragraph 48 of IAS 7 requires an entity to disclose information about ‘significant cash and cash equivalent balances held by the entity that are not available for use by the group’; and
  2. paragraph 66(d) of IAS 1 requires an entity to classify as current an asset that is ‘cash or a cash equivalent (as defined in IAS 7) unless the asset is restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period’.

The Committee concluded that restrictions on the use of a demand deposit arising from a contract with a third party do not result in the deposit no longer being cash, unless those restrictions change the nature of the deposit in a way that it would no longer meet the definition of cash in IAS 7. In the fact pattern described in the request, the contractual restrictions on the use of the amounts held in the demand deposit do not change the nature of the deposit—the entity can access those amounts on demand. Therefore, the Committee concluded that the entity includes the demand deposit as a component of ‘cash and cash equivalents’ in its statement of cash flows.

Presentation in the statement of financial position

Paragraph 54(i) of IAS 1 requires an entity to include a line item in its statement of financial position that presents the amount of ‘cash and cash equivalents’. Paragraph 55 of IAS 1 states ‘an entity shall present additional line items (including by disaggregating the line items listed in paragraph 54) … in the statement of financial position when such presentation is relevant to an understanding of the entity’s financial position’.

Therefore, the Committee concluded that, in the fact pattern described in the request, the entity presents the demand deposit as cash and cash equivalents in its statement of financial position. When relevant to an understanding of its financial position, the entity would disaggregate the ‘cash and cash equivalents’ line item and present the demand deposit separately in an additional line item.

An entity that presents assets as current or non-current would classify the demand deposit as current applying paragraph 66(d) of IAS 1, unless the demand deposit is ‘restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period’.

Disclosures

Paragraph 45 of IAS 7 states that ‘an entity shall disclose the components of cash and cash equivalents…’. Applying this requirement, in the fact pattern described in the request, the entity discloses the demand deposit as a component of cash and cash equivalents. The entity also considers whether to disclose additional information:

  1. in the context of the requirements in IFRS 7 Financial Instruments: Disclosures about liquidity risk arising from financial instruments and how an entity manages that risk; and
  2. if the information it provides in applying the disclosure requirements in IAS 7 and IFRS 7 is insufficient to enable users of financial statements to understand the impact of the restrictions on the entity’s financial position (paragraph 31 of IAS 1).

The Committee concluded that the principles and requirements in IFRS Accounting Standards provide an adequate basis for an entity to determine whether to include demand deposits subject to contractual restrictions on use agreed with a third party as a component of cash and cash equivalents in its statements of cash flows and financial position. Consequently, the Committee decided not to add a standard-setting project to the work plan.

Back to sub-topic index

102.3.1.1

IFRIC Agenda Decision - Value added tax

August 2005 - The IFRIC considered whether it should add to its agenda a project to clarify whether cash flows reported in accordance with IAS 7 Cash Flow Statements should be measured as inclusive or exclusive of value added tax (VAT). There was evidence that different practices may emerge, the differences being most marked for entities that adopt the direct method of reporting cash flows.

IAS 7 does not explicitly address the treatment of VAT. The IFRIC noted that it would be appropriate in complying with IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements for entities to disclose whether they present their gross cash flows as inclusive or exclusive of VAT.

The IFRIC decided that it should not develop an Interpretation on this topic, because while different practices might emerge, they were not expected to be widespread. The IFRIC will recommend to the IASB that the treatment of VAT should be considered as part of the review of IAS 7 being carried out within the project on performance reporting.

Back to sub-topic index

102.3.1.2

IFRIC Agenda Decision - Classification of expenditures

March 2008 - The IFRIC received a request for guidance on the treatment of some types of expenditure in the statement of cash flows. In practice some entities classify expenditures that are not recognised as assets under IFRSs as cash flows from operating activities while others classify them as part of investing activities. Examples of such expenditures are those for exploration and evaluation activities (which can be recognised, according to the applicable standard, as an asset or an expense). Advertising and promotional activities, staff training and research and development could also raise the same issue.

The IFRIC concluded that the issue could be best resolved by referring it to the Board with a recommendation that IAS 7 should be amended to make explicit that only an expenditure that results in a recognised asset can be classified as a cash flow from investing activity. The IFRIC therefore decided not to add the issue to its agenda.

Back to sub-topic index

102.3.1.3

IFRIC Agenda Decision - Supply Chain Financing Arrangements—Reverse Factoring

December 2020 - The Committee received a request about reverse factoring arrangements. Specifically, the request asked:

a.

how an entity presents liabilities to pay for goods or services received when the related invoices are part of a reverse factoring arrangement; and

b.

what information about reverse factoring arrangements an entity is required to disclose in its financial statements.

In a reverse factoring arrangement, a financial institution agrees to pay amounts an entity owes to the entity’s suppliers and the entity agrees to pay the financial institution at the same date as, or a date later than, suppliers are paid.

...

Presentation in the statement of cash flows

Paragraph 6 of IAS 7 Statement of Cash Flows defines:

a.

operating activities as ‘the principal revenue-producing activities of the entity and other activities that are not investing or financing activities’; and

b.

financing activities as ‘activities that result in changes in the size and composition of the contributed equity and borrowings of the entity’.

An entity that has entered into a reverse factoring arrangement determines how to classify cash flows under the arrangement, typically as cash flows from operating activities or cash flows from financing activities. The Committee observed that an entity’s assessment of the nature of the liabilities that are part of the arrangement may help in determining whether the related cash flows arise from operating or financing activities. For example, if the entity considers the related liability to be a trade or other payable that is part of the working capital used in the entity’s principal revenue-producing activities, the entity presents cash outflows to settle the liability as arising from operating activities in its statement of cash flows. In contrast, if the entity considers that the related liability is not a trade or other payable because the liability represents borrowings of the entity, the entity presents cash outflows to settle the liability as arising from financing activities in its statement of cash flows.

Investing and financing transactions that do not require the use of cash or cash equivalents are excluded from an entity’s statement of cash flows (paragraph 43 of IAS 7). Consequently, if a cash inflow and cash outflow occur for an entity when an invoice is factored as part of a reverse factoring arrangement, the entity presents those cash flows in its statement of cash flows. If no cash inflow or cash outflow occurs for an entity in a financing transaction, the entity discloses the transaction elsewhere in the financial statements in a way that provides all the relevant information about the financing activity (paragraph 43 of IAS 7).

Notes to the financial statements

...

Paragraph 44A of IAS 7 requires an entity to provide ‘disclosures that enable users of financial statements to evaluate changes in liabilities arising from financing activities, including both changes arising from cash flows and non-cash changes’. The Committee noted that such disclosure is required for liabilities that are part of a reverse factoring arrangement if the cash flows for those liabilities were, or future cash flows will be, classified as cash flows from financing activities.

 

The Committee concluded that the principles and requirements in IFRS Standards provide an adequate basis for an entity to determine the presentation of liabilities that are part of reverse factoring arrangements, the presentation of the related cash flows, and the information to disclose in the notes about, for example, liquidity risks that arise in such arrangements. Consequently, the Committee decided not to add a standard-setting project on these matters to the work plan.

Back to sub-topic index

102.12.1.1

IFRIC Agenda Decision - Disclosure of Changes in Liabilities Arising from Financing Activities

September 2019 - The Committee received a request from users of financial statements (investors) about the disclosure requirements in IAS 7 that relate to changes in liabilities arising from financing activities. Specifically, investors asked whether the disclosure requirements in paragraphs 44B⁠–⁠44E of IAS 7 are adequate to require an entity to provide disclosures that meet the objective in paragraph 44A of IAS 7.

Meeting the disclosure objective (Paragraph 44A of IAS 7)

Paragraph 44A of IAS 7 requires an entity to provide ‘disclosures that enable [investors] to evaluate changes in liabilities arising from financing activities, including both changes arising from cash flows and non-cash changes’.

To the extent necessary to satisfy the objective in paragraph 44A, paragraph 44B specifies that an entity discloses the following changes in liabilities arising from financing activities:

a.

changes from financing cash flows;

b.

changes arising from obtaining or losing control of subsidiaries or other businesses;

c.

the effect of changes in foreign exchange rates;

d.

changes in fair values; and

e.

other changes.

The Board explained in paragraph BC16 that it developed the disclosure objective in paragraph 44A to reflect the needs of investors, including those summarised in paragraph BC10. The Board also noted in paragraph BC18 that when considering whether it has fulfilled the objective in paragraph 44A, an entity takes into consideration the extent to which information about changes in liabilities arising from financing activities provides relevant information to investors, considering the needs of investors summarised in paragraph BC10. These investor needs are:

a.

to check their understanding of the entity’s cash flows and use that understanding to improve their confidence in forecasting the entity’s future cash flows;

b.

to provide information about the entity’s sources of finance and how those sources have been used over time; and

c.

to help them understand the entity’s exposure to risks associated with financing.

Reconciling between the opening and closing balances of liabilities arising from financing activities

Paragraph 44D of IAS 7 states that ‘one way to fulfil the disclosure requirement in paragraph 44A is by providing a reconciliation between the opening and closing balances in the statement of financial position for liabilities arising from financing activities, including the changes identified in paragraph 44B’.

When an entity discloses such a reconciliation it provides information that enables investors to link items included in the reconciliation to other areas of the financial statements. In doing this, an entity applies:

a.

paragraph 44C to identify liabilities arising from financing activities and use them as the basis of the reconciliation. Paragraph 44C defines these liabilities as ‘liabilities for which cash flows were, or future cash flows will be, classified in the statement of cash flows as cash flows from financing activities’. If an entity also chooses to define, and reconcile, a different ‘net debt’ measure, this does not remove the requirement for the entity to identify its liabilities arising from financing activities as defined in paragraph 44C.

b.

paragraph 44E to disclose changes in liabilities arising from financing activities separately from changes in any other assets and liabilities.

c.

paragraph 44D to provide sufficient information to enable investors to link the items included in the reconciliation to amounts reported in the statement of financial position and the statement of cash flows, or related notes. An entity develops disclosures that enable investors to link (i) the opening and closing balances of the liabilities arising from financing activities reported in the reconciliation, to (ii) amounts reported in the entity’s statement of financial position (or related notes) regarding those liabilities.

The Committee observed that an entity applies judgement in determining the extent to which it disaggregates and explains the changes in liabilities arising from financing activities included in the reconciliation to meet the objective in paragraph 44A. In this respect, the Committee noted the following:

a.

in disaggregating liabilities arising from financing activities, and cash and non-cash changes in those liabilities, an entity applies paragraph 44B of IAS 7 and paragraph 30A of IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements. Paragraph 30A of IAS 1 states that an entity ‘shall not reduce the understandability of its financial statements…by aggregating material items that have different natures or functions’. Accordingly, an entity discloses any individually material items separately in the reconciliation. Such items include material classes of liability (or asset) arising from financing activities and material reconciling items (ie cash or non-cash changes).

b.

in explaining liabilities arising from financing activities, and cash and non-cash changes in those liabilities, an entity applies paragraph 44B of IAS 7 and paragraph 112(c) of IAS 1. Paragraph 112(c) of IAS 1 requires an entity to disclose ‘information that is not presented elsewhere in the financial statements, but is relevant to an understanding of any of them’. Accordingly, applying paragraphs 44A⁠–⁠44E, an entity determines the appropriate structure for its reconciliation including the appropriate level of disaggregation. Thereafter, the entity determines whether additional explanation is needed to meet the disclosure objective in paragraph 44A. An entity would explain each class of liability (or asset) arising from financing activities included in the reconciliation and each reconciling item in a way that (i) provides information about its sources of finance, (ii) enables investors to check their understanding of the entity’s cash flows, and (iii) enables investors to link items to the statement of financial position and the statement of cash flows, or related notes.

Accordingly, the Committee concluded that the principles and requirements in IFRS Standards provide an adequate basis for an entity to disclose information about changes in liabilities arising from financing activities that enables investors to evaluate those changes. Accordingly, the Committee concluded that the disclosure requirements in paragraphs 44B⁠–⁠44E of IAS 7, together with requirements in IAS 1, are adequate to require an entity to provide disclosures that meet the objective in paragraph 44A of IAS 7. Consequently, the Committee decided not to add the matter to its standard-setting agenda.

Back to sub-topic index

 

This publication has been carefully prepared, but it has been written in general terms and should be seen as broad guidance only. The publication cannot be relied upon to cover specific situations and you should not act, or refrain from acting, upon the information contained therein without obtaining specific professional advice. Neither BDO IFR Advisory Limited, and/or any other entity of BDO network, nor their respective partners, employees and/or agents accept or assume any liability or duty of care for any loss arising from any action taken or not taken by anyone in reliance on the information in this publication or for any decision based on it.

The BDO network (referred to as the ‘BDO network’ or the ‘Network’) is an international network of independent public accounting, tax and advisory firms which are members of BDO International Limited and perform professional services under the name and style of BDO (hereafter ‘BDO member firms’). BDO International Limited is a UK company limited by guarantee.  It is the governing entity of the BDO network. 

Service provision within the BDO network in connection with IFRS (comprising International Financial Reporting Standards, International Accounting Standards, and Interpretations developed by the IFRS Interpretations Committee and the former Standing Interpretations Committee), and other documents, as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board, is provided by BDO IFR Advisory Limited, a UK registered company limited by guarantee. Service provision within the BDO network is coordinated by Brussels Worldwide Services BV, a limited liability company incorporated in Belgium.

Each of BDO International Limited, Brussels Worldwide Services BV, BDO IFR Advisory Limited and the BDO member firms is a separate legal entity and has no liability for another entity’s acts or omissions. Nothing in the arrangements or rules of the BDO network shall constitute or imply an agency relationship or a partnership between BDO International Limited, Brussels Worldwide Services BV, BDO IFR Advisory Limited and/or the BDO member firms. Neither BDO International Limited nor any other central entities of the BDO network provide services to clients.

BDO is the brand name for the BDO network and for each of the BDO member firms.